Helpful tips

How can you tell the difference between AP and PA view of the skull?

How can you tell the difference between AP and PA view of the skull?

Practical points

  1. the PA view decreases the radiation dose to the eyes compared with the AP view.
  2. less magnification of the facial bones is achieved compared with the AP view.
  3. overlap of facial bone structures makes it harder to evaluate the sinuses than with an angled view (e.g. Caldwell view)

Which bones are visible from the anterior view of the skull?

The bones of the skull that are visible from an anterior and a lateral view are the following:

  • the sphenoid bone (with the greater and the lesser wings)
  • the frontal bone (especially the orbital surface)
  • the zygomatic bone.
  • the maxilla.
  • the mandible.
  • the nasal bones.
  • the ethmoid bones.
  • the parietal bone and.

What does R mean in xray?

Each lead marker is identified with an ‘R’ that represents right or an ‘L’ that represents left. They are also identified with the radiologic technologist’s initials. Every radiologic technologist places one of these lead markers on all images.

Can the bones in your skull move?

There is very little evidence which disproves cranial bone motion. No investigators have come forth with valid evidence that reliably shows that cranial bones do not move.

How to determine the location of facial bones?

• Adjust the flexion of the patient’s neck so that the infraorbitomeatal line (IOML) is perpendicular to the front edge of the IR (Figs. 21-1 to 21-3 ). Fig. 21-1 Lateral facial bones. Fig. 21-2 Upright radiography. Fig. 21-3 Table radiography. • Immobilize the head. • Respiration: Suspend.

What kind of radiography is used for facial bones?

Paranasal sinuses and facial bones radiography is the radiological investigation of the facial bones and paranasal sinuses. Plain radiography of the facial bones is still often used in the setting of trauma, postoperative assessments and dental radiography.

When to use the submentovertex view of the skull?

This view is useful in assessing potential pathology from trauma or disease progression to the basal skull structures 1-4, including the foramen ovale, foramen spinosum and sphenoid sinuses. It is imperative that any cervical spine subluxations or fractures on acute trauma patients is excluded before proceeding with this view.

What is the waters method for facial bones?

Fig. 21-12 Modified parietoacanthial facial bones: Waters method. The modified Waters method is a good projection to show blowout fractures. This method places the orbital floor perpendicular to the IR and parallel to the central ray, showing inferior displacement of the orbital floor and the commonly associated opacified maxillary sinus.