What languages are included in satem?

What languages are included in satem?

They include diverse tongues like English, Russian, French, Latin, and Hindi. While English is very different from Hindi, for instance, they both come ultimately from the same source: Indo-European. The Indo-European languages fall into two general branches.

Is Armenian centum or satem?

Some linguists argue that the Albanian and Armenian branches are also to be classified as satem, but some linguists argue that they show evidence of separate treatment of all three dorsal consonant rows and so may not have merged the labiovelars with the plain velars, unlike the canonical satem branches.

Why are satem languages so named?

Slavic, and others—is called the satem (satəm) group. (The words centum and satem come from Latin and Iranian, respectively, and mean “hundred.” They exemplify, with their initial consonant, the two different treatments of the Proto-Indo-European simple velars.)

Is Armenian an satem?

Armenian belongs to the satem (satəm) group of Indo-European languages; this group includes those languages in which the palatal stops became palatal or alveolar fricatives, such as Slavic (with Baltic) and Indo-Iranian.

What is known as Grimm’s Law?

Grimm’s law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of sound laws describing the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic in the 1st millennium BC.

What is the meaning of satem?

: of, relating to, or constituting an Indo-European language group in which the palatal stops became in prehistoric times palatal or alveolar fricatives — compare centum.

Is English a language?

The English language is an Indo-European language in the West Germanic language group. Modern English is widely considered to be the lingua franca of the world and is the standard language in a wide variety of fields, including computer coding, international business, and higher education.

Where did the centum and satem languages come from?

It is no longer thought that the Proto-Indo-European language split first into centum and satem branches from which all the centum and all the satem languages, respectively, would have derived.

Is there such a thing as semi satem?

The term “Semi-Satem” is ridiculous, because in Daco-Thracian there is a number of words with velars in the place of PIE palatals, for different reasons (not necessary borrowings from Centum languages), just like in other Satəm languages (no true Satem languages are known in fact).

Which is the eastern branch of the satem language?

The satem languages belong to the Eastern sub-families, especially Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic (but not Tocharian ), with Indo-Iranian being the major Asian branch and Balto-Slavic the major European branch of the satem group.

How did the satem language lose its labial element?

It lost the labial element of Proto-Indo-European labiovelars and merged them with plain velars, but the palatovelars remained distinct and typically came to be realised as sibilants. That set of developments, particularly the assibilation of palatovelars, is referred to as satemisation .