What was the state of Indian agriculture before 1947?

What was the state of Indian agriculture before 1947?

Before independence, the condition of agriculture was: Feudalism and sub-feudalism were prevalent. In some cases there were as many as 50 intermediaries between the peasants and the Government. Around 4/5th of the produce was taken from the peasants as taxes, which in turn led to impoverishment of farmers.

What was the condition of Indian agriculture sector before independence?

The agricultural sector in pre-independence India was very prone to crumbling and highly volatile. In other words, there was not stable production rate for various crops. The main reason for this was improper infrastructure for perennial irrigation.

When did agriculture start in India?

9000 BCE
Indian agriculture began by 9000 BCE on north-west India as a result of early cultivation of plants, and domestication of crops and animals. Settled life soon followed with implements and techniques being developed for agriculture. Double monsoons led to two harvests being reaped in one year.

What was the condition of Indian agriculture before the British rule?

Before the British colonial period, Indian agriculture was dominated by subsistence farming organized in small village communities. The farmer usually only grew enough food to feed himself and the non-agricultural people of the village community.

What were the main causes of India’s agriculture?

Causes of India’s agriculture stagnation during the colonial…

  • Land revenue system: The colonial government in India introduced various systems of land settlement.
  • High dependency on monsoon: The Indian agricultural sector was deprived of irrigation facilities and technology advancement.

What are the problems faced by farmers prior independence?

Small and scattered land holdings were very difficult to cultivate. At the time of independence, old and outdated methods of farming were used in the agriculture sector. There was insufficient use of fertilisers and other machines. Agriculture was excessively dependent upon rainfall.

Which state is No 1 in agriculture in India?

Uttar Pradesh comes under the top farming state in India and the rank of Uttar Pradesh counted under major state wise crop production in India, bajra, rice, sugarcane, food grains, and many more. It comes under the top wheat producing states in India, followed by Haryana, Punjab, and Madhya Pradesh.

Are farmers rich in India?

India holds a 2 rank in the world when it comes to farm production. However, according to the Situation Assessment Survey of Agricultural Household 2013, a typical Indian farming household earns just Rs 77,124 in a year, which is Rs 6,427 monthly, hardly sufficient to cover the average monthly expenses.

Why is agriculture in India stagnated?

High dependency on monsoon: The Indian agricultural sector was deprived of irrigation facilities and technology advancement. As a result, the production of the agricultural sector was solely dependent on the monsoon. This created an adverse situation for the farmers and led to a low level of agricultural productivity.

What are the main reason for stagnation in agriculture sector class 12?

Land tenure systems : The stagnation in the agricultural sector was caused mainly because of the various systems of land-settlement that were introduced by the colonial government. Particularly under the Zamindari system, the profit accruing out of the agriculture sector went to Zamindars instead of the cultivators.

How is agriculture in India before and after independence?

Agriculture in India: Before and After Independence. Agriculture In India – Introduction Agriculture has been an integral part of the Indian Economy, before and after Independence, despite its decline in share of GDP (17.2% as of 2011). Half of India’s population depends on Agriculture as a livelihood. India is 2nd in farm output.

How was the agriculture sector on the eve of Independence?

How was the Condition of the Agriculture Sector on the Eve of Independence? The condition of India’s agricultural sector on the eve of independence can be summed up with the following points – fragmented land ownership, outdated technology, rainfall dependant, low productivity, subsistence farming, and feud amongst landowners and cultivators.

What was the economy of India on the eve of Independence?

1 The Indian economy was an agro-based economy on the eve of independence. 2 75% of the Indian population was earning a livelihood from agriculture. 3 Despite being a primary source of income for a major population, this sector faced a decline under the British rule.

What was the national income of India before independence?

This is evident from the fact that the national income of India consists of 70% of the income generated from agriculture. Before independence, the economy was 95% dependent on agriculture and the revenues earned from agriculture.