What is K65R mutation?

What is K65R mutation?

K65R is a relatively rare drug resistance mutation (DRM) selected by the NRTIs tenofovir, didanosine, abacavir and stavudine and confers cross-resistance to all NRTIs except zidovudine. Selection by other NRTIs is uncommon.

What is the signature mutation associated with resistance to emtricitabine and lamivudine?

Most dual–dual NRTI combinations consist of a primary NRTI with lamivudine (3TC) or emtricitabine (FTC) [1,101]. The M184V mutation, conferring high-level resistance to 3TC and FTC, develops rapidly in approximately 50% of treated persons but remains a clinical benefit [2–5].

Is Lamivudine an NRTI?

Available NRTIs These formulations include: zidovudine (Retrovir) lamivudine (Epivir) abacavir sulfate (Ziagen)

Is abacavir an ARV?

What is abacavir? Abacavir, sold under the brand name Ziagen, is a type of antiretroviral (anti-HIV) drug called a nucleoside analogue or “nuke.” Abacavir is used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to treat (but not cure) HIV.

What is a genotypic resistance test?

Genotypic resistance testing examines the genetic structure (genotype) of a patient’s HIV. A blood sample is taken from the patient, and the HIV is analyzed for the presence of specific genetic mutations that are known to cause resistance to specific drugs.

What are the most common two pathways of resistance with raltegravir?

Two primary resistance pathways associated with raltegravir treatment failures in the BENCHMRK-1 and BENCHMRK-2 studies have been described, as follows :

  • Q148K/R/H (25-fold decrease in susceptibility)
  • N155H (10-fold decrease in susceptibility)

What are the side effects of lamivudine?

Lamivudine is generally a safe drug, with fewer side effects than other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Its most common side effects are headache, fatigue, and nausea which generally subside over time. Other side effects include decreased appetite, diarrhoea, skin rash, and abdominal pain.

Why lamivudine is called 3TC?

Lamivudine, sold under the brand name 3TC (Epivir in the US), is a type of antiretroviral (anti-HIV) drug called a nucleoside analogue or “nuke.” 3TC is used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to treat (but not cure) HIV. 3TC is also found in these medicines: Kivexa – 3TC + abacavir.

How much does an abacavir cost?

Current prescription drug costs

Drug name (brand name) Cost of brand name Number of tablets or capsules
abacavir (Ziagen) $559–$670 60
emtricitabine (Emtriva) $537–$644 30
tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (Vemlidy) $1,064–$1,350 30
tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread) $1,140–$1,368 30

What is the major side effects of abacavir?

The most common side-effects of abacavir are hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction (see previous section), feeling sick, headache, being sick, diarrhoea, loss of appetite, tiredness, lack of energy, fever (high temperature).

What does lamivudine cure?

Lamivudine (Epivir-HBV) is used to treat hepatitis B infection. Lamivudine is in a class of medications called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). It works by decreasing the amount of HIV and hepatitis B in the blood.

When to use abacavir / lamivudine in combination therapy?

Abacavir/Lamivudine is indicated in antiretroviral combination therapy for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in adults, adolescents and children weighing at least 25 kg (see sections 4.4 and 5.1).

Can a K65R mutation abrogate NRTI activity?

K65R + M184V/I appear sufficient to abrogate the NRTI activity of a regimen comprising ABC, TDF, or d4T plus a cytosine analog suggesting that despite the relatively low-levels of reduced susceptibility associated with K65R, this mutation is highly clinically relevant. K65R reduces 3TC and FTC susceptibility about 5 to 10-fold ( 3, 64 ).

Why does K65R rarely occur in combination with Tams?

K65R rarely occurs in combination with TAMs because K65R and most TAMs exhibit bidirectional antagonism ( 68, 71, 72, 73 ). Several lines of evidence suggest that K65R is more likely to emerge in subtype C viruses than viruses belonging to other subtypes.

How many mg of abacavir are in a film coated tablet?

1. Name of the medicinal product 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition Each film-coated tablet contains abacavir hydrochloride equivalent to 600 mg abacavir and 300 mg lamivudine. Excipient (s) with known effect: sunset yellow (E110) 1.4 mg per tablet For the full list of excipients see section 6.1. 3. Pharmaceutical form