What is the principle of Abbe refractometer?

What is the principle of Abbe refractometer?

The measuring principle of an Abbe refractometer is based on the principle of total reflection. Abbe refractometers are used for measuring liquids. The reference media glasses (prisms) can be selected with high refractive indices. The light from a radiation source is reflected by a mirror and hits a double prism.

For what purpose Abbe’s refractometer is used?

The Abbe refractometer, invented by Ernst Abbe of the firm of Carl Zeiss, provides a convenient means for the determination of the index of refraction and Abbe number (a measure of spectral dispersion) of a liquid. At the lower end of the telescope are two prisms in a water-jacketed housing.

Which lamp is used in prism of Abbe refractometer?

“White light” Abbe refractometers are normally calibrated to read nD, the sample refractive index for sodium yellow light (589 nm).

Which light source is used in refractometer?

Handheld refractometers and Abbe refractometers use transmitted light: The light beam goes through two right-angled prisms, an illumination prism and a measurement prism. Both prisms are made from glass with the same refractive index and are pressed against each other.

What is Refractometric method?

A refractometric method was developed for the analysis of chemical interactions of macromolecules in solution. Calculation formulae were derived for determining the degree of transformation using experimental results of the refractive index of the reaction mixture by a precision interferometer.

What are the advantages of Abbe refractometer over the other refractometers?

Abbé refractometer can be used to measure both refractive index of liquids and solids. In both cases refractive index of the substance must be lower than the refractive index of the glass used to made measuring prism.

What are the applications of refractive index?

The refractive index is used to measure solids, liquids, and gases. Most commonly it is used to measure the concentration of a solute in an aqueous solution. It can also be used as a useful tool to differentiate between different types of gemstone, due to the unique chatoyance each individual stone displays.

Why do we use refractive index?

Every material that interacts with light has a refractive index. In many industries, a refractive index measurement is used to check the purity and concentration of liquid, semi-liquid and solid samples. Liquids and semi-liquid samples can be measured with high accuracy (e.g. down to – / + 0.00002).

What is the working principle of the Abbe refractometer?

Abbé refractometer working principle is based on critical angle. Sample is put between two prisms – measuring and illuminating. Light enters sample from the illuminating prism, gets refracted at critical angle at the bottom surface of measuring prism, and then the telescope is used to measure position of the border between bright and light areas.

Which is the best example of a refractometer?

Abbe’s refractometer, temperature controller, light source and samples. The Abbe instrument is the most convenient and widely used refractometer, Fig (1) shows a schematic diagram of its optical system. The sample is contained as a thin layer (~0.1mm) between two prisms.

How do you read the index of refraction?

Turn the refractometer scale knob to get the clear interface between the illuminated and dark regions. Read the index of refraction using the telescope scale. Temperature of the sample can be varied by using the slider. Repeat the experiment with different liquids and study the variation of refractive index with temperature and wavelength.

How to calculate refractometer for water and ethanol?

For example, at 20° C, for water A = 1.324 and B = 0.00319 μm 2; and for ethanol, A = 1.352 and B = 0.00318. We were unable to load Disqus Recommendations.