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How is Fusobacterium transmitted?

How is Fusobacterium transmitted?

Fusobacterium species are part of the normal flora of the oropharyngeal, gastrointestinal, and genital tracts. Modes of transmission include mucous membrane contact, accidental inoculation, and contact with infected body fluids. Person-to-person transmission has occurred from bite wounds.

How do you test for Fusobacterium necrophorum?

No laboratory method for diagnosing Fusobacterium pharyngitis is readily available. F. necrophorum is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that is difficult to grow on routine media from throat swabs. Blood cultures grow the organism, but identification is slow.

How is Fusobacterium treated?

Although Fusobacterium infections are rare, they can become severe if not treated promptly. Appropriate treatment is combination antibiotic therapy consisting of a β-lactam (penicillin, cephalosporin) and an anaerobic antimicrobial agent (metronidazole, clindamycin).

What is Lemierre syndrome?

Lemierre’s syndrome is a severe illness caused by the anaerobic bacterium, Fusobacterium necrophorum which typically occurs in healthy teenagers and young adults. The infection originates in the throat and spreads via a septic thrombophlebitis of the tonsillar vein and internal jugular vein.

What does Fusobacterium necrophorum cause?

Fusobacterium necrophorum is an unusual cause of mastoiditis, sinusitis and meningitis with a limited number of published reports 2–10. Fusobacterium necrophorum can cause invasive disease with severe complications in previously healthy children and adults.

How long does Fusobacterium necrophorum survive in the environment?

necrophorum is ubiquitous in soil and manure, in the gastrointestinal tract, and on the skin and hooves of domestic animals. In contrast, Dichelobacter is an obligate pathogen of the ovine foot; the organism contaminates the soil and manure but rarely remains in the environment for over about 2 weeks.

Where are Fusobacterium found in the human body?

Fusobacterium species are normal inhabitants of all mucosal surfaces, including the mouth, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. Worldwide, F. nucleatum is the most common Fusobacterium species found in clinical infections, while F. necrophorum is the most virulent.

How can Fusobacterium be distinguished from other anaerobes?

Fusobacterium can be differentiated from these other gram-negative, obligate anaerobes by its ability to produce significant amounts of butyric acid from glucose, giving cultured colonies a characteristic odor. Identification in the laboratory is made by morphology and the following biochemical assays:

What kind of drugs can Fusobacterium be resistant to?

The species is generally susceptible to penicillin, clindamycin, and chloramphenicol and resistant to erythromycin and macrolides. Though part of the normal flora of human tissues, Fusobacterium can invade tissues after surgical or accidental trauma, edema, anoxia, and/or tissue destruction.