Do macrophages make interferon-gamma?
Do macrophages make interferon-gamma?
In addition, naturally activated alveolar macrophages immediately secreted IFN-gamma upon treatment with IL-12 and IL-18. Therefore, human macrophages in addition to lymphoid cells contribute to the IFN-gamma response, providing another link between the innate and acquired immune responses.
Can dendritic cells produce interferon-gamma?
It has been reported by several laboratories, including our own,9-12 that DCs are able to produce IFN-γ when stimulated with interleukin 12 (IL-12) and IL-18.
What stimulates interferon-gamma production?
Early in an immune response, IFN-γ is mainly generated by NK cells, and once the adaptive immune response is engaged, it is a major product of Th1 cells activated by APCs that produce IL-12 or IL-18. In contrast, in the absence of STAT1, IFN-α can stimulate production of IFN-γ by T cells.
Is IFN-gamma a cytokine?
IL‐12 is a cytokine secreted primarily by activated macrophages ( 2, 86, 87–88). It induces IFN‐γ production by NK cells and Th1 cells, while IL‐12 production itself is induced by IFN‐γ ( 89).
What cells secrete interferon gamma?
Interferon-gamma is secreted predominantly by activated lymphocytes such as CD4 T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and CD8 cytotoxic T cells (23–26), γδ T cells (27–33), and natural killer (NK) cells (34, 35) and, to a less extent, by natural killer T cells (NKT), B cells (36–39), and professional antigen-presenting cells ( …
Is IFN-gamma type 1?
IFN-γ is an important component of the innate antiviral response and is predominantly produced by NK cells or innate lymphoid type 1 cells (2, 72, 73).
Are interferons inflammatory?
The innate immune response is involved in various inflammatory processes and has a particularly important role in bacterial and viral infections. Interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory cytokines are crucial molecules in this process, influencing cellular, tissue, and global physiological functions.
Is interferon a gamma antiviral?
IFN-γ is an important component of the innate antiviral response and is predominantly produced by NK cells or innate lymphoid type 1 cells (2, 72, 73). In the context of HSV-2 infection, absence of IFN-γ production results in increased virus replication and decreased survival (74, 75).
How does interferon-γ shift monocyte differentiation to macrophages?
When added to immature DCs, IFN-γ up-regulates IL-6 but not M-CSF production and does not convert them to macrophages, even in the presence of exogenous M-CSF. In conclusion, IFN-γ shifts monocyte differentiation to macrophages rather than DCs through autocrine M-CSF and IL-6 production.
When to use interferon γ in mixed lymphocyte reaction?
After 48 hours, cells were or were not stimulated with 2 ng/mL LPS for 24 hours and used in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assays at 2 × 10 4 cells/mL with 10 6 allogenic purified T cells. After 5 days, cells were pulsed during the last 16 hours with 0.25 μCi/well (0.00925 MBq) 3 H-thymidine (Amersham, Uppsala, Sweden).
How do monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells and macrophages?
Human monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages according to the nature of environmental signals. Monocytes stimulated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plus interleukin 4 (IL-4) yield DCs.
How does IL-6 shift differentiation from DCS to macrophages?
Tumor cells produce IL-6 and M-CSF that shift the differentiation of CD34 + progenitors from DCs to macrophages. 9 Fibroblasts, via IL-6 production, up-regulate functional M-CSF receptor (CD115) expression and autocrine M-CSF consummation by monocytes, thereby switching their differentiation from DCs to macrophages. 10